But at the heart of today's indictment stands Monica Elfriede Witt, 39, a former US Air Force counter-intelligence special agent specialized in Middle East operations, who served for the Air Force between 1997 and 2008, and later worked as a DOD contractor until 2010 -including for Booz Allen Hamilton, the same defense company where Edward Snowden worked.
She allegedly revealed to Tehran the existence of a "highly classified intelligence collection programme" and the real identity of a USA intelligence officer. Four hackers linked to the Iranian government, charged in the same indictment, used that information to target the intelligence workers online, prosecutors said.
US authorities have not yet arrested Witt, who remains at large in Iran, but a warrant has been issued.
Around the same time, Witt appeared in at least one Iranian video in which she criticized the USA government.
Investigators allege that Witt was recruited by affiliates of the Guard while attending conferences organized by New Horizon Organization, which allegedly collects intelligence on conference attendees.
The Justice Department has indicted a former Air Force intelligence officer for allegedly helping Iran spy on American intelligence officers, according to court documents.
U.S. officials said Witt, who worked for years in U.S. Air Force counterintelligence, had an "ideological" turn against her country.
Monica Elfriede Witt, a former Texas resident, left the U.S. military in 2008 after more than a decade of service.More news: United Kingdom and Switzerland strike trade deal for post-Brexit Britain
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The Justice Department has issued arrest warrants for Witt and the four Iranians, who all remain at large.
The Iranian hackers also used photos and information of another United States counterintelligence official to create a fake Facebook account for friending other agents.
As part of its action on February 13, the United States also charged four Iranian nationals who it said were involved in the cyberattacks.
Witt used fake Facebook accounts to search for U.S. counterintelligence officials on the social network, according to court documents.
In one instance, the conspirators created a fake Facebook account using information from the employee's real Facebook account.
The announcement, which also included sanctions on the New Horizon Organization, organization officials, and a company tied to the hacking effort, came on the opening day of a US-led worldwide conference in Warsaw, Poland aimed at boosting pressure on Tehran.
Through friend requests, the fake Facebook account managed to befriend several actual United States intelligence agents. The connections she made at that event with dual Iranian-American citizens enabled her to defect the following year. "I am endeavoring to put the training I received to good use instead of evil", she told that person in an email.