"I tried to make sure that all the views represented on the executive were expressed and we had a very frank exchange with the Prime Minister".
The talks had aimed to find a path through the impasse between MPs and the government over it's Brexit deal with the European Union, but will probably now involve deciding on a range of options to put before parliament.
"While there are some areas where compromise has been possible, we have been unable to bridge important policy gaps between us", he added.
"Even more crucially, the increasing weakness and instability of your government means there can not be confidence in securing whatever might be agreed between us", Mr Corbyn said.
Mrs May's decision to bring forward the Withdrawal Agreement Bill at the start of June was seen as a last throw of the dice to secure a political legacy by getting her deal through Parliament and taking Britain out of the European Union before her time in office is finally up.
May had hoped to bring her Brexit Withdrawal Bill to the House of Commons at the start of June.
But discontent on Conservative backbenches forced May on Thursday to agree to set out her departure timetable in early June.
The German government says it still has a "great interest" in Britain reaching a domestic agreement on how to move forward on Brexit, after talks between government and opposition broke down.
"Cabinet ministers are competing to succeed you, the position of the government has become ever more unstable and its authority eroded", Corbyn wrote to May on Friday. However, Cabinet ministers repeated rejections of such a proposal only served to drive a wedge between negotiators, making the likelihood of an agreement unlikely.
Britain's Prime Minister Theresa May leaves 10 Downing Street in London, May 15, 2019.More news: Game Of Thrones' Series Finale Broke A Huge HBO Record
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"Politics as usual won't defeat them", he will say.
The chances of parliamentary consensus on Brexit are slim. Leaving without a deal, called a "hard exit" would mean Britain doesn't have trade deals worked out with neighboring countries.
And Corbyn's Labour, the principal opposition party, while politically committed to leaving the European Union, also opposes the deal over issues of workers' rights and those of European Union nationals living in Britain and British nationals living within the EU.
The Brexit Party far in the lead on 35%, as Brexiteers flock around Farage.
Without the full support of her own party and the DUP, May was relying on assistance from the opposition. Following the meeting, the committee has now agreed to let May wait until after June's meaningful vote to set an end date. That glimmer has now been extinguished.
Corbyn said on Friday that "without significant changes, we will continue to oppose the government's deal as we do not believe it safeguards jobs, living standards and manufacturing industry in Britain".
She said "the fact that there is no common position in Labour about whether they want to deliver Brexit or hold a second referendum which could reverse it" was responsible.
Before then, the government is considering holding a series of "indicative votes" to see what path, if any, lawmakers might be able to agree.
Meanwhile, European Commission president Jean-Claude Juncker has spoken of his regret at not speaking out during the campaign about Vote Leave's campaign claim that the United Kingdom sends the EU £350 million a week.